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Posts Tagged ‘Pew Internet & American Life Project’

Mobile second screens make TV watching a “social contact sport”

Tuesday, July 17th, 2012

PewInternetThe era of the second screen is very much upon us and watching TV is becoming “a social contact sport,” says a new report from the Pew Internet & American Life Project.

TV cable newscasters order us: “get your cell phones out” for a survey. We’re asked to vote for contestants in talent contests, and we tweet, text and surf the web via mobile devices while watching TV.

Half of all adult cell phone owners now incorporate their mobile devices into their television watching experiences, according to the nationally representative telephone survey conducted by Pew.

These “connected viewers” used their cell phones for a wide range of activities during the 30 days preceding our April 2012 survey:

  • 38% of cell owners used their phone to keep themselves occupied during commercials or breaks in something they were watching
  • 23% used their phone to exchange text messages with someone else who was watching the same program in a different location
  • 22% used their phone to check whether something they heard on television was true
  • 20% used their phone to visit a website that was mentioned on television
  • 11% used their phone to see what other people were saying online about a program they were watching, and 11% posted their own comments online about a program they were watching using their mobile phone
  • 6% used their phone to vote for a reality show contestant

More than half of cell owners are “connected viewers”

Taken together, 52% of all cell owners are “connected viewers”—meaning they use their phones while watching television for at least one of these reasons.

“These findings unify two trends occurring across modern media platforms: the rise of audience engagement and the rise of portable connectivity,” said Jan Lauren Boyles, a research intern at Pew Internet and a co-author of the report.

“Television audiences are actively primed to participate, and these connected viewers are using mobile devices to debate, learn, and engage with programming and each other.”

The youngest adults are especially enamored of multi-screen viewing experiences, as 81% of cell owners ages 18-24 are classified as connected viewers.

At the same time, the use of mobile phones to engage with televised content is widespread throughout a range of demographic cohorts: well over half of cell owners between the ages of 25 and 44 are connected viewers, and nearly half of those in their mid-40s to mid-50s have used their phone recently to engage with—or distract themselves during—televised content.

Other key differences that emerge in this research include:

  • Smartphone owners are far more likely to use their phones to engage with televised content than owners of more basic phones. Some 74% of smartphone owners are connected viewers, compared with just 27% of those with more basic phones.
  • African-American cell owners are more likely than whites or Latinos to use their phone to see what others are saying online and to post their own comments online about a program they are watching, as well as share text messages with someone else watching a program in a different location.
  •  Cell owners living in households earning $50,000 per year or more are more likely to participate in interactive television experiences than those in households with lower annual incomes, and those with at least some college experience are more likely to do so than those who have not graduated high school. Additionally, urban residents are more likely to be connected viewers than those living in rural areas.

“Thanks to the widespread adoption of mobile technologies, what was once a passive, one-way information flow is often now a social contact sport,” said Aaron Smith, a Pew Internet researcher and co-author of the report.

“Viewers are using these devices to find others who share their passions, to sound off on programming that captures their attention, and to go ‘beyond the broadcast’ to inform themselves more fully about the things they have heard and experienced.”

The Pew Internet report is based on a survey conducted from March 15-April 3 among 2,254 adults ages 18 and over, including surveys in English and Spanish and on both landline and cell phones. The margin of error for cell phone owners is plus or minus 2.6 percentage points.

Half of American adults 65 & older are now online

Wednesday, June 6th, 2012

PewInternetSeniors may still use the Internet less than younger groups, but for the first time, more than half of Americans 65 or older are now online, according to the Pew Internet & American Life Project.

While email is the mainstay of their Internet use, their use of social media networks has also increased significantly, and nearly 70 percent now have a mobile phone.

According to the Pew report:

As of April 2012, 53% of American adults age 65 and older use the internet or email.

Though these adults are still less likely than all other age groups to use the internet, the latest data represent the first time that half of seniors are going online.

After several years of very little growth among this group, these gains are significant.

Overall, 82% of all American adults ages 18 and older say they use the internet or email, at least occasionally, and 67% do so on a typical day.

Once online, most seniors make internet use a regular part of their lives.

For most online seniors, internet use is a daily fixture in their lives. Among internet users age 65 and older, 70% use the internet on a typical day. (Overall, 82% of all adult internet users go online on an average day.)

After age 75, internet and broadband use drops off significantly.

Internet usage is much less prevalent among members the “G.I. Generation” (adults who are currently age 76 and older)[1] than among other age groups.

As of April 2012, internet adoption among this group has only reached 34%, while home broadband use has inched up to 21%.

Seven in ten seniors own a cell phone, up from 57% two years ago.

A growing share of seniors own a cell phone. Some 69% of adults ages 65 and older report that they have a mobile phone, up from 57% in May 2010.

Even among those currently age 76 and older, 56% report owning a cell phone of some kind, up from 47% of this generation in 2010.

Despite these increases, however, older are less likely than other age groups to own these devices. Some 88% of all adults own a cell phone, including 95% of those ages 18-29.

One in three online seniors uses social networking sites like Facebook and LinkedIn.

Social networking site use among seniors has grown significantly over the past few years: From April 2009 to May 2011, for instance, social networking site use among internet users age 65 and older grew 150%, from 13% in 2009 to 33% in 2011.

As of February 2012, one third (34%) of internet users age 65 and older use social networking sites such as Facebook, and 18% do so on a typical day. Among all adult internet users, 66% use social networking sites (including 86% of those ages 18-29), with 48% of adult internet users making use of these sites on a typical day.

By comparison, email use continues to be the bedrock of online communications for seniors. As of August 2011, 86% of internet users age 65 and older use email, with 48% doing so on a typical day.

Among all adult internet users, 91% use email, with 59% doing so on a typical day. Among all adult internet users, 91% use email, with 59% doing so on a typical day.

Social media using teens enthusiastic about video

Thursday, May 3rd, 2012

PewInternetSocial media using teenagers love video more than others and girls are using video chat more than boys. Those are two findings from the latest Pew Internet report on Teens & Online Video.

In a survey of 799 teens conducted by the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project in 2011, the teens were asked about a number of online behaviors.

The results for video-oriented activities are reported here. Among the findings:

  • 37% of internet users ages 12-17 participate in video chats with others using applications such as Skype, Googletalk or iChat.
  • Girls are more likely than boys to have such chats.
  • 27% of internet-using teens 12-17 record and upload video to the internet. One major difference between now and 2006 is that online girls are just as likely these days to upload video as online boys.
  • 13% of internet-using teens stream video live to the internet for other people to watch.
  • Social media users are much more likely than those who do not use social media to engage in all three video behaviors studied.

 

E-reading on the rise, says Pew study

Tuesday, April 10th, 2012

PewInternetOne-fifth of American adults (21%) report that they have read an e-book in the past year, and this number increased following a gift-giving season that saw a spike in the ownership of both tablet computers and e-book reading devices such as the original Kindles and Nooks, according to the Pew Internet & American Life Project.

In mid-December 2011, 17% of American adults had reported they read an e-book in the previous year; by February, 2012, the share increased to 21%.

The rise of e-books in American culture is part of a larger story about a shift from printed to digital material. Using a broader definition of e-content in a survey ending in December 2011, some 43% of Americans age 16 and older say they have either read an e-book in the past year or have read other long-form content such as magazines, journals, and news articles in digital format on an e-book reader, tablet computer, regular computer, or cell phone.

E-book readers stand-out in every way

Those who have taken the plunge into reading e-books stand out in almost every way from other kinds of readers. Foremost, they are relatively avid readers of books in all formats: 88% of those who read e-books in the past 12 months also read printed books.

Compared with other book readers, they read more books. They read more frequently for a host of reasons: for pleasure, for research, for current events, and for work or school. They are also more likely than others to have bought their most recent book, rather than borrowed it, and they are more likely than others to say they prefer to purchase books in general, often starting their search online.

The growing popularity of e-books and the adoption of specialized e-book reading devices are documented in a series of new nationally representative surveys by the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project that look at the public’s general reading habits, their consumption of print books, e-books and audiobooks, and their attitudes about the changing ways that books are made available to the public.

Most of the findings in this report come from a survey of 2,986 Americans ages 16 and older, conducted on November 16-December 21, 2011, that extensively focused on the new terrain of e-reading and people’s habits and preferences and other surveys.

Key findings:

A fifth of American adults have read an e-book in the past year and the number of e-book readers grew after a major increase in ownership of e-book reading devices and tablet computers during the holiday gift-giving season. 

A pre-holiday survey found that 17% of Americans age 18 and older had read an e-book in the previous 12 months and a post-holiday survey found that the number had grown to 21%. This coincides with significant increases in ownership of e-book reading devices and tablet computers over the holiday gift-giving season.

KindleOwnership of e-book readers like the original Kindle and Nook jumped from 10% in December to 19% in January and ownership of tablet computers such as iPads and Kindle Fires increased from 10% in mid-December to 19% in January. In all, 29% of Americans age 18 and older own at least one specialized device for e-book reading – either a tablet or an e-book reader.

The average reader of e-books says she has read 24 books (the mean number) in the past 12 months, compared with an average of 15 books by a non-e-book consumer. Some 78% of those ages 16 and older say they read a book in the past 12 months. Those readers report they have read an average (or mean number) of 17 books in the past year and 8 books as a median (midpoint) number.

Those who read e-books report they have read more books in all formats. They reported an average of 24 books in the previous 12 months and had a median of 13 books. Those who do not read e-books say they averaged 15 books in the previous year and the median was 6 books.

For device owners, those who own e-book readers also stand out. They say they have read an average of 24 books in the previous year (vs. 16 books by those who do not own that device). They report having read a median of 12 books (vs. 7 books by those who do not own the device).

Interestingly, there were not major differences between tablet owners and non-owners when it came to the volume of books they say they had read in the previous 12 months.

Overall, those who reported reading the most books in the past year include: women compared with men; whites compared with minorities; well-educated Americans compared with less-educated Americans; and those age 65 and older compared with younger age groups.

tablets30% of those who read e-content say they now spend more time reading, and owners of tablets and e-book readers particularly stand out as reading more now. Some 41% of tablet owners and 35% of e-reading device owners said they are reading more since the advent of e-content. Fully 42% of readers of e-books said they are reading more now that long-form reading material is available in digital format. The longer people have owned an e-book reader or tablet, the more likely they are to say they are reading more: 41% of those who have owned either device for more than a year say they are reading more vs. 35% of those who have owned either device for less than six months who say they are reading more.

Men who own e-reading devices and e-content consumers under age 50 are particularly likely to say they are reading more.

The prevalence of e-book reading is markedly growing, but printed books still dominate the world of book readers. In our December 2011 survey, we found that 72% of American adults had read a printed book and 11% listened to an audiobook in the previous year, compared with the 17% of adults who had read an e-book.

  • There are four times more people reading e-books on a typical day now than was the case less than two years ago. On any given day, 45% of book readers are reading a book in one format or another.
  • And there has been a shift in the format being used by those who are reading on a typical day. In June 2010, 95% of those reading books “yesterday” were reading print books and 4% were reading e-books. In December 2011, 84% of the “yesterday” readers were reading print books and 15% were reading e-books.
  • Those who own e-book readers and tablets are avid readers of books in all formats. On any given day, 49% of those who own e-book readers like the original Kindles and Nooks are reading an e-book. And 59% of those e-reader owners said they were reading a printed book. On any given day, 39% of tablet owners are reading an e-book and 64% were reading a printed book.

SmartphonesE-book reading happens across an array of devices, including smartphones. In our December survey we found that e-book readers age 16 and older were just as likely to have read an e-book on their computers as had read e-book reader devices specifically made for e-book consumption. Cell phones are reading devices, too:

  • 42% of readers of e-books in the past 12 months said they consume their books on a computer
  • 41% of readers of e-books consume their books on an e-book reader like original Kindles or Nooks
  • 29% of readers of e-books consume their books on their cell phones
  • 23% of readers of e-books consume their books on a tablet computer.3

In a head-to-head competition, people prefer e-books to printed books when they want speedy access and portability, but print wins out when people are reading to children and sharing books with others. We asked a series of questions about format preferences among the 14% of Americans age 16 and up who in the past 12 months have read both printed books and e-books.

As a rule, dual-platform readers preferred e-books when they wanted to get a book quickly, when they were traveling or commuting, and when they were looking for a wide selection. However, print was strongly preferred over e-books when it came to reading to children and sharing books with others. When asked about reading books in bed, the verdict was split: 45% prefer reading e-books in bed, while 43% prefer print.

Which is better for these purposes

 

The availability of e-content is an issue to some. Of the 43% of Americans who consumed e-books in the last year or have read other long-form content on digital devices, a majority say they find the e-content is available in the format they want. Yet 23% say they find the material they are seeking “only sometimes,” “hardly ever,” or never available in the format they want:

  • 20% of e-content consumers say the material they want is always availablein the format they want.
  • 50% of e-content consumers say the material they want is available “most of the time.”
  • 17% of e-content consumers say the material they want is available “only sometimes.”
  • 3% of e-content consumers say the material they want is available “hardly ever.”
  • 4% of e-content consumers say the material they want is never available.

For internet users who read e-books, online bookstores are the first stop. Asked where they start their search for an e-book they want to read, 75% of e-book readers start their search at an online bookstore or website. Some 12% start at the library.

Demographics of e-book readers. In our survey ending in February 2012, we found that 29% of adult book readers had read an e-book in the past 12 months. Overall, that comes to 21% of all adults. Those who read e-books are more likely to be under age 50, have some college education, and live in households earning more than $50,000.

Portrait of e-book readers

Those who own e-book reading devices stand out from other book readers and there are sometimes differences among device owners in their reading habits.   

Our December 2011 survey found that those age 16 and older who own tablets or e-book reading devices are more likely than others to read for every reason: for pleasure, for personal research, for current events, and for work or school.

  • Some 89% of e-reading device owners say they read at least occasionally for pleasure, compared with 80% of all Americans 16 and older. Some 49% read for pleasure every day or almost every day (vs. 36% of all those 16 and older).
  • Similarly, 89% of e-reading device owners say they read at least occasionally in order to do research on specific topics that interest them (vs. 74% of all those 16 and older). Some 36% read for this reason daily or almost every day, compared with 24% of the general population.
  • Some 88% of e-reading device owners (vs. 78% of all those 16 and older) say they read at least occasionally to keep up with current events. People read most frequently for this reason: 64% say they do it daily or almost every day (vs. 50% of all 16 and older).
  • Some 71% of e-reading device owners say they read for work or school(vs. 56% of all 16 and older); almost half (49%) do so daily (compared with 36%).

Device owners read more often. On any given day 56% of those who own e-book reading devices are reading a book, compared with 45% of the general book-reading public who are reading a book on a typical day. Some 63% of the e-book device owners who are reading on any given day are reading a printed book; 42% are reading an e-book; and 4% are listening to an audio book.

Device owners are more likely to buy books. Some 61% of e-reading device owners said they purchased the most recent book they read, compared with 48% of all readers. Another 15% said they had borrowed their most recent book from a friend or family member (vs. 24% of all readers), and 10% said they borrowed it from a library (vs.14% of all readers).

Asked their preference for obtaining books in all formats, e-book reading device owners were more likely to say they prefer to purchase than to borrow books in any format – print, digital, or audio. In related fashion, they are also more likely to say they start their searches for e-books at online bookstores.

Book recommendations. Overall, owners of e-reading devices are more likely than all Americans 16 and older to get book recommendations from people they knew (81% vs. 64%) and bookstore staff (31% vs. 23%). In addition, compared with the general public, owners of e-reading devices who use the internet are also more likely to get recommendations from online bookstores or other websites (56% vs. 34%).

Where do you get recommendations for reading material

Other key findings:

  • Amazon’s Kindle Fire, a new tablet computer introduced in late 2011, grew in market share from 5% of the market in mid-December to 14% of the tablet market in mid-January. This change also grew as the overall size of the tablet market roughly doubled.
  • Among those who do not own tablet computers or e-book reading devices, the main reasons people say they do not own the devices are: 1) they don’t need or want one, 2) they can’t afford one, 3) they have enough digital devices already, or 4) they prefer printed books.

Mobile phones now an essential tool and playtime toy

Monday, August 15th, 2011

PewInternetMobile phones have become a near-ubiquitous tool for information seeking and communicating, and these devices have an impact on many aspects of their owners’ daily lives.

In a nationally representative telephone survey, the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project found that 83% of American adults have a mobile phone and during the 30 days preceding the interview reported these experiences:

  • · Cell phones are useful for quick information retrieval (so much so that their absence can cause problems) – Half of all adult cell owners (51%) had used their phone at least once to get information they needed right away. One quarter (27%) said that they experienced a situation in the previous month in which they had trouble doing something because they did not have their phone at hand.
  • · Cell phones are an important tool in emergency situations – 40% of cell owners said they found themselves in an emergency situation in which having their phone with them helped.
  • · Cell phones can help stave off boredom – 42% of cell owners used their phone for entertainment when they were bored.
  • · Despite their advantages, some cell phone owners just need an occasional break – 29% of cell owners turned their phone off for a period of time just to get a break from using it.
  • · With advantages comes frustration – 20% of cell owners experienced frustration because their phone was taking too long to download something; 16% had difficulty reading something on their phone because the screen was too small; and 10% had difficulty entering a lot of text on their phone.
  • · Cell phones can help prevent unwanted personal interactions – 13% of cell owners pretended to be using their phone in order to avoid interacting with the people around them.
  •  94% of young adults (those between the ages of 18 and 29) own cell phones. They and the 35% of Americans who own smartphones are especially likely to use their phones to quickly access needed information and to use their phones for entertainment, but also more likely than average to express frustration with slow download speeds and to have trouble accomplishing tasks when their phones are not at hand.

“For many Americans, cell phones have become an essential tool and playtime toy,” noted Aaron Smith, a Senior Research Specialist at the Project and author of the Project’s report on cell phone usage.

“They use their phones for ‘on-the-go’ entertainment and just-in-time information, but many have a complicated relationship with their phone. Users who are accustomed to relying on their phones may experience trouble accomplishing things they’d like to do if their phone is not available or is hampered by slow download speeds. And many just seek an occasional break from always-on connectivity.”
Text messaging and picture taking continue to top the list of ways that Americans use their mobile phones—three quarters of all cell owners (73%) use their phones for each of these purposes. Other relatively common activities include sending photos or videos to others (54% of cell owners do this) as well as accessing the internet (44%).

In addition, several mobile activities exhibited significant growth on a year-to-year basis from 2010 to 2011:
· Sending a photo or video to someone rose from 36% of cell owners in May 2010 to 54% of cell owners in May 2011

· Accessing the internet—from 38% to 44%

· Sending or receiving email—from 34% to 38%

· Watching a video—from 20% to 26%

· Posting a photo or video online—from 15% to 22%

One third of American adults (35%) own a smartphone of some kind, and these users take advantage of a wide range of their phones’ capabilities. Fully nine in ten smartphone owners use text messaging or take pictures with their phones, while eight in ten use their phone to go online or send photos or videos to others. Many activities—such as downloading apps, watching videos, accessing social networking sites or posting multimedia content online—are almost entirely confined to the smartphone population.

“Smartphones have become all-in-one information and communication devices,” said Pew Internet’s Smith. “Smartphone owners are communicating with friends, sharing multimedia content, creating their own material, and accessing the world of digital information from a device that sits in their purse or pocket.”

More than a quarter of Americans got election info from cell phones

Thursday, December 23rd, 2010

PewInternetWASHINGTON, DC – It is no secret that cell phones are playing an increasingly important part in the lives of most Americans. Evidence is plentiful. Here’s the latest from the Pew Internet & American Life Project: more than a quarter of American adults – 26% – used their cell phones to learn about or participate in the 2010 mid-term election campaign.

In a post-election nationwide survey of adults, the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project found that 82% of adults have cell phones. Of those cell owners, 71% use their phone for texting and 39% use the phone for accessing the internet.

With that as context, the Pew Internet survey found that:
- 14% of all American adults used their cell phones to tell others that they had voted.
- 12% of adults used their cell phones to keep up with news about the election or politics.
- 10% of adults sent text messages relating to the election to friends, family members and others.
- 6% of adults used their cells to let others know about conditions at their local voting stations on election day, including insights about delays, long lines, low turnout, or other issues.
- 4% of adults used their phones to monitor results of the election as they occurred.
- 3% of adults used their cells to shoot and share photos or videos related to the election.
- 1% of adults used a cell-phone app that provided updates from a candidate or group about election news.
- 1% of adults contributed money by text message to a candidate or group connected to the election like a party or interest group.

If a respondent said she or he had done any of those activities in the last campaign season, we counted that person in this 26% cohort.

Throughout this report we call this group “mobile political users” or the “mobile political population.”

Some 71% of cell owners say they voted in the 2010 election, compared with 64% of the full adult population in this survey who say they voted. (Note: The overall reported turnout was about 40% in the election.

It is common for post-election surveys to hear from a greater number of people who say they voted than was actually the case.) There was no partisan tilt in the makeup of the mobile political user population. They split their votes equally between Democratic and Republican congressional candidates – 44% to each.

About 2% said they voted for other candidates and 10% didn’t answer the question or said they didn’t know. Generally, there were few partisan or ideological differences in way this group used their cell phones for politics.

In most cases, those ages 18-29 were more likely than those in older cohorts to use their cell phones for getting and sharing political information.

Pew Internet: 8 percent of Americans online use Twitter

Friday, December 10th, 2010

PewInternetTwitter may be valued at billions of dollars, but only 8 percent of Americans online are using it, according to a recent report from thee Pew Research Center’s Internet and American Life Project.

Some of the other findings in the report may surprise you.

Groups who are notable for their relatively high levels of Twitter use include:

  • Young adults – Internet users ages 18-29 are significantly more likely to use Twitter than older adults.
  • African-Americans and Latinos – Minority internet users are more than twice as likely to use Twitter as are white internet users.
  • Urbanites – Urban residents are roughly twice as likely to use Twitter as rural dwellers.

Twitter launched on July 15, 2006 and now claims tens of millions of users worldwide. It is one of the most popular online activities among tech enthusiasts and has become a widely used tool among analysts to study the conversations and interests of users, buzz about news, products or services, and announcements by commercial, non-profit, and government organizations.

Pew notes that it is an important component of the analytical work by our colleagues at the Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism in its New Media Index, which assesses the most prominent topics discussed in social media every week.

Women and the college-educated are also slightly more likely than average to use the service.

We would add that social marketers, journalists, entertainment personalities, and a majority of the web publications we visit are also prominent users of Twitter.

But, at least for now, it clearly does not have the same appeal as Facebook for many general Internet users.

Pew survey says experts agree the Net’s effect is mostly positive

Friday, July 2nd, 2010

Imagining the InternetWASHINGTON, DC – The social benefits of the Internet will far outweigh the negatives over the next decade, according to experts who responded to a survey about the future of the Internet conducted by Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project and NC-based Elon University’s Imagining the Internet center.

The experts surveyed say email, social networks, and other online tools offer “low-friction” wasy to create, enhance and rediscover social ties that make a difference in people’s lives by lowering traditional communications constraints of distance, cost and time.

Most agree effect will be positive

In the survey, Some 85 percent agreed with the statement:“In 2020, when I look at the big picture and consider my personal friendships, marriage and other relationships, I see that the internet has mostly been a positive force on mysocial world. And this will only grow more true in the future.”

On the other hand, some 14 percent agreed with the opposite statement, which posited: “In 2020, when I look at the big picture and consider my personal friendships, marriage and other relationships, I see that the internet has mostly been a negative force on my social world. And this will only grow more true in the future.”

Most survey respondents were “effusive” in their praise of social connectivity already leveraged online, many citing their personal experiences as examples.

We could easily supply our own, from reconnecting with family and friends via Facebook to links to fellow professional on Twitter, to the vastly increased ability to network via those, LinkedIn, and many other Internet sites and applications.

Some see problems

Not everyone surveyed was completely sold on just positive aspects of the Net, however.

Some survey respondents noted that with the internet’s many social positives come problems. They said that both scenarios presented in the survey are likely to be accurate, and noted that tools such as email and social networks can and are being used in harmful ways.

Among the negatives noted by both groups of respondents: time spent online robs time from important face‐to‐face relationships; the internet fosters mostly shallow relationships; the act of leveraging the internet to engage in social connection exposes private information; the internet allows people to silo themselves.

We’ve often found quite the opposite of some these objections to be true. The Internet has fostered more face to face connections and find it affects our life in an expansive rather than a constricting manner.

Tech advances predicted

In the future, some who responded to the survey expect technological advances to continue changing social relationships online. We’d bet on that. Change is one thing that’s likely to be a sure thing.

Among the technologies mentioned by those in the survey were: holographic displays and the bandwidth necessary to carry them; highly secure and trusted quantum/biometric security; powerful collaborative visualization decision‐based tools; permanent, trusted, and unlimited
cloud archive storehouses; open networks enabled by semantic web tools in public‐domain services; and instant thought transmission in a telepathic format.

–By Allan Maurer

Contact Tech Journal South Editor and writer Allan Maurer: Allan at TechJournalSouth dot com.

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